Pilot schemes simultaneously measure and monitor system parameters at all terminals of a transmission line, local and remote, and then respond according to their predetermined functions. These schemes require the… Read more
As you know, generators and motors are supposed to operate with balanced three-phase loading, but exposure to unbalanced currents is inevitable. Unbalances could arise from many different sources like unbalanced… Read more
A transformer-feeder include a transformer directly connected to a transmission line circuit without the intermediation of a HV switchgear. The saving in HV switchgear so achieved is unfortunately lowered by… Read more
As you already know, protective conductors are the main part of every earthing protection system, but the complexity of the system will increase with the requirements of information technology, voltage… Read more
The utility supply voltage depends on both availability and consumer requirements. The consumer transformer is connected delta on the high-voltage side and grounded wye on the low-voltage side. A fused-disconnect… Read more
The analysis of faults in synchronous machine and transformer windings presents a special difficulty because the effective impedances of the affected windings under internal fault conditions are not normally known…. Read more
Directional protection is usually applied to distribution systems that contain multiple power sources, parallel circuits and rings/loops. For such systems it is absolutely necessary to have protection against fault currents…...
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