In order to calculate short-circuit currents, it is obligatory to know conductor-specific equivalent data and impedances of electrical operational equipment, which are usually given by the respective manufacturer. The calculation…...
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There are many terms related to the power transformer operation that can be easily visualized which are especially important for students, like for example transformer construction or regular working principle…. Read more
As you already know, protective conductors are the main part of every earthing protection system, but the complexity of the system will increase with the requirements of information technology, voltage… Read more
If the voltage or current in a power circuit are too high to connect measuring instruments or relays directly, coupling is made through transformers. Such measuring transformers are required to… Read more
Polarity is very important for the operation of transformers and protection equipment. A clear understanding of polarity is useful in understanding and analyzing of transformer connections and operation as well… Read more
In previous article we described how overcurrent, restricted earth fault (REF) and differential protection of a transformer can be applied and explained their schemes. This part continues with other, also… Read more
The problems relating to transformer temperature rise above an assumed maximum ambient temperature require some means of protection. Let’s summarize the problems and the possible forms of transformer protection that… Read more
The term biased-differential or percentage differential is based on the fact that the operating threshold increases with the through current. Because of that, comparison of upstream and downstream currents in… Read more